Human beings body has several internal and external organs for various purposes to keep the body healthy and active. Each and every organ function is very important. In this article we see the amazing facts about the kidney.
Structure of Kidney
Kidneys are two bean shaped organs and the size of each kidney is similar to the size of a fist. Both kidneys are located below the rib cage, one on each side of your spine. The color of the kidney is reddish brown.
Actually both kidneys are not the same size, the left side kidney size is a little bigger than the right side kidney; because the left side kidney is placed slightly higher and closer to the heart.
The weight of the kidneys vary from men to women. A man’s average weight of the kidneys is roughly 129 grams (g) for the right one and 137 g for the left kidney. In a woman the average weight of kidneys organs is 108 g for the right kidney and 116 g for the left kidney.
Each kidneys are surrounded by fibrous renal capsules to protect the soft tissue inside. The adrenal glands are placed on the top of the kidneys.
Several numbers of pyramid-shaped lobes present inside the kidneys. Each consists of an inner renal medulla and an outer renal cortex. Nephrons flow between these sections and every single nephron includes a filter, called the glomerulus, and a tubule. The glomerulus’s main work is to filter blood, which enters the kidneys through the renal arteries and leaves through the renal veins. The kidneys are small organs compared with some other blood purification organs, but they receive 20–25% of the heart’s output.
The tubule returns necessary substances to the blood and eliminates waste that then becomes urine. The kidneys eliminate urine through the ureter, a tube that leads to the bladder.
Kidneys do an excellent function to keep the body healthy and the main role of organ kidneys is maintaining homeostasis. The organ support managing fluid levels, electrolyte balance, and other factors that keep the internal conditions of the body consistent and comfortable.
These organs carry out a wide range of bodily functions.
The kidneys eliminate several waste products and get rid of them in the urine. Some major compounds that the kidneys eliminate are:
- Urea, Which Results From The Breakdown Of Proteins
- Uric Acid From The Breakdown Of Nucleic Acids
- Drugs And Their Metabolites
Reabsorption of nutrients
The kidneys do an excellent job of providing nutrition to the body. Yes, the kidney reabsorbs nutrients from the blood using tubules and supplying them to where they will best support health. They also reabsorb some other products to support maintaining homeostasis. Reabsorbed products such as:
- Amino Acids
- Chloride, Sodium, Magnesium, And Potassium Ions.
The function of Osmolality measures the body’s electrolyte-water balance, which is the ratio between fluids and minerals in the body; Keeping electrolyte in a balanced level is very important, because electrolyte imbalance will lead to Dehydration.
If osmolality increases in the blood plasma, the hypothalamus in the brain responds by sending a message to the pituitary gland. This gland supplies or releases antidiuretic hormone (ADH). In response to ADH, the kidney makes several changes, such as
- Boosting Urine Concentration
- Boosting Water Reabsorption
- Reopening Portions Of The Collecting Duct(a passage with well defined walls, especially a tube for the passage of excretions or secretions) That Water Cannot Normally Enter, Allowing Water Back Into The Body.
- To Keep the Urea In The Medulla Of The Kidney Rather Than Excreting It, As This Compound Draws In Water.
Controlling blood pressure
Blood pressure is a very important one, both low blood pressure and high blood pressure in the body will cause several health issues in the body. Kidneys support keeping the blood pressure when necessary, but they are responsible for slower adjustments.
Kidneys adjust long-term pressure in the arteries by making certain changes in the fluid outside of cells. The medical term for this fluid is called as extracellular fluid. This fluid changes occur after the supplying of a vasoconstrictor called angiotensin II. Vasoconstrictors are hormones that cause blood vessels to narrow for smooth blood circulation.
These hormones play a role in boosting the kidneys’ absorption of sodium chloride, or salt. This absorption effectively makes the size of the extracellular fluid compartment bigger and also increases blood pressure. Anything that alters blood pressure, including consuming excessive alcohol, smoking cigarettes, and obesity(weight gaining), can damage the kidneys function for long term. Leaving Smoking habits, having control over drinking and managing obesity with weight loss medications & workout can be helpful.
Secretion of active compounds
The kidneys supplying several important compounds, such as:
- Erythropoietin: This compound controls erythropoiesis, which is the production of red blood cells; The organ liver also produces erythropoietin, but the kidneys are producing in large quantities during adulthood.
- Renin: This enzyme supports controlling the expansion of arteries and the volumes of blood plasma, lymph, and interstitial fluid.
- Calcitriol: This is the hormonally active metabolite of vitamin D; It boosts both the amount of calcium that the intestines can absorb and the reabsorption of phosphate in the organ kidney.
Keeps the pH level control
In the human body, the range of acceptable pH levels is 7.35–7.45. When the normal levels of pH is changed into low level or high level, the body enters a state of acidemia or alkalemia, respectively.
The organ kidneys and lungs support to keep the body’s pH stable. Kidneys maintain the pH level under control by reabsorbing and producing bicarbonate from urine, which helps neutralize acids.
People can live a healthy life with one Kidney. Several people have two healthy kidneys, So keep the kidneys well and live a happy life. Every day healthy kidneys pump more than 200 liters of Blood in a person’s body. So always keep your kidneys well and good. Please stay away from alcohol, cigarettes, using illegal drugs and overdose medicine products.